The truffle is a Tuber genus hypogeum fungus and belongs to Tuberaceae family: it is born and lives underground and develops near the roots of some species of forest plants and shrubs, particularly oaks, holm oaks, poplars, lindens, willows and hornbeams, with which it establishes a symbiotic relationship called mycorrhizae that is expressed in the nourishment that truffle draws from them, subtracting water and mineral salts. The truffle is formed by an enveloping coat of the fruiting body called peridium which can appear smooth or wrinkled, and a fleshy internal mass called gleba, which can have different colors (white, pink, brown, black) and which highlights the veins that delimit the sac where the ascomycete, large cell clusters containing the spores, are. The different truffles types are identified by the characteristics of peridium, gleba, ascomycete, sporocarp, size and organoleptic notes.

Since ancient times the truffle is considered precious and mysterious, and is often quoted: in the first century A.D. there was the belief that truffles arose from the combination of water, fire and lightning thrown by the god Zeus/Jupiter, and from this the poet Juvenal was inspired to affirm that truffle had aphrodisiac properties given since as the god was known for his amorous activity, and so the precious tuber was dedicated to Aphrodite, love goddess.